Fetlar is one of the North Isles of Shetland, Scotland, with a usually resident population of 61 at the time of the 2011 census. Its main settlement is Houbie on the south coast, home to the Fetlar Interpretive Centre.
Fetlar is the fourth largest island of Shetland and has an area of just over 4,000 hectares (15 ‘ sq ‘ mi).
One of the strange features of Fetlar is a huge wall that goes across the island known as the Funzie Girt or Finnigirt Dyke. It is thought to date from the Mesolithic period. So sharp was the division between the two halves of the island, that the Norse talked of East and West Isle separately.
Another attraction on the island is the Gothic Brough Lodge, built by Arthur Nicolson in about 1820, and which is undergoing restoration by the Brough Lodge Trust.
The Fetlar sheepdog trials take place annually, normally in July. The Fetlar Foy is very popular with Shetlanders and tourists alike. It takes place at midsummer on the Links at Tresta where folk are entertained with music, food and drink.
Its most famous son was Sir William Watson Cheyne Bt FRS FRCS, a close associate of Lord Lister and one of the pioneers of antiseptics.
He was professor of surgery at King’s College London, President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and wrote many books on medical treatments. He was made a baronet for services to medicine in 1908, was an MP first for the Universities of Edinburgh and St Andrews and then the Combined Scottish Universities in 1917 and 1918. He was Lord Lieutenant of the Shetland Islands from 1919 to 1930.
Cheyne died on Fetlar on 19 April 1932.
Fishing and shipwrecks
Fetlar has a long tradition of fishing. An unusual result of this is that according to Guinness World Records the record for the oldest message in a bottle was broken in August 2012 when a drift bottle released in June 1914 was found by Andrew Leaper, skipper of the Copious, coincidentally the same fishing vessel involved in the previous record recovery in 2006. The bottle, and Mr Leaper’s World Record certificate, have been donated to the Fetlar Interpretative Centre.
Fetlar also has an international selection of shipwrecks including Danish, Dutch, German, English and Soviet vessels.
Geography and geology
Fetlar has a very complex geology, including gneiss in the west, metamorphosed gabbro and phyllite, and kaolin. There is also antigorite and steatite here. Talc was mined here.
Fetlar is surrounded by a number of small islands, particularly in the sound between it and Unst.
These include to the north: Daaey; Haaf Gruney; Sound Gruney; Urie Lingey and Uyea and to the west: Hascosay and Linga
It is separated from Hascosay and Yell by Colgrave Sound. Much further to the south are the Out Skerries and Whalsay.
There are three island names in Shetland of unknown and possibly pre-Celtic origin: Fetlar, Unst and Yell. The earliest recorded forms of these three names do carry Norse meanings: Fetlar is the plural of fetill and means “shoulder-straps” Omstr is “corn-stack” and la is from l meaning “deep furrow”.
However these descriptions are hardly obvious ones as island names and are probably adaptations of a pre-Norse language. This may have been Pictish but there is no clear evidence for this. Haswell-Smith suggests a meaning of “prosperous land” and that the island’s name may mean “two islands strapped together” by the Funzie Girt.
It was recorded as “F til r” in 1490.
Fetlar’s wildlife is as varied as its geology. For example, over two hundred species of wild flower have been identified here.
The northern part of Fetlar is a RSPB reserve, home to several important breeding species including Arctic skuas and whimbrels. The Lamb Hoga peninsula and nearby Haaf Gruney have some of the largest colonies of storm petrel.
Of greatest importance though are red-necked phalaropes, for which the Loch of Funzie is the most important breeding site in the United Kingdom, and for a while during the 1990s was the only breeding site in the country. A pair of snowy owls famously bred here in the 1960s and early 1970s, they lasted until the 1980s but are no longer present. The island is known as “The Garden of Shetland,” due to its highly fertile soil.
Ferries sail daily from Hamars Ness on Fetlar to Gutcher on Yell and Belmont on Unst.
A new breakwater and berthing facility is being added at Hamars Ness and was officially opened on 1 December 2012.
There is a communications tower on Fetlar at: 60 ‘ 36’5.39″N, 0 ‘ 55’35.44″W. Fetlar is “Under Evaluation” for superfast broadband according to Digital Scotland.
Fetlar Developments Ltd (FDL), a company limited by guarantee and a registered charity, was set up by the community to counter the depopulation of the island, which had fallen to just 48 in early 2009, when the 2001 total had been 86. The development company continue to work towards securing a sustainable future for the island both socially and economically.
Currently there are 7 primary pupils and 2 nursery pupils at Fetlar primary school, situated at Baela near Houbie.
- ^ Anderson (1873) preface
- ^ ab Area and population ranks: there are c.
300 islands >20ha in extent and 93 permanently inhabited islands were listed in the 2011 census.
- ^ abc National Records of Scotland (15 August 2013) (pdf) Statistical Bulletin: 2011 Census: First Results on Population and Household Estimates for Scotland – Release 1C (Part Two). “Appendix 2: Population and households on Scotland s inhabited islands”. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
- ^ abcdefgh Haswell-Smith (2004) pp.
- ^ Ordnance Survey. Get-a-map (Map).
Ordinance Survey. Retrieved 21 August 2013.‘
- ^ “Finnigirt Dyke” fetlar.com. Retrieved 1 May 2008
- ^ “Brough Lodge Trust” fetlar.com.
Retrieved 30 April 2008.
- ^ “10th Anniversary Fetlar Foy” johnsmasfoy.com. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- ^ “World record as message in bottle found after 98 years near Shetland” BBC News. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- ^ Gammeltoft (2010) p.
- ^ Gammeltoft (2010) pp.
- ^ Gammeltoft (2010) p.
- ^ “Norn” Shetlopedia. Retrieved 23 Jan 2011.
- ^ ab Haswell-Smith (2004) p.
- ^ “Fetlar Museum” fetlar.com. Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- ^ “Fetlar: The Garden of Shetland” fetlar.org.
Retrieved 28 Jan 2011.
- ^ http://www.digitalscotland.org/superfast-broadband/the-programme/
- ^ General Register Office for Scotland (28 November 2003) Scotland’s Census 2001 ” Occasional Paper No 10: Statistics for Inhabited Islands. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- ^ Fetlar Primary School. “News Page”. Retrieved 28 November 2009. ‘
- Anderson, Joseph (ed.) (1873) The Orkneyinga Saga.
Translated by J n A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh.
Edmonston and Douglas. The Internet Archive. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands.
ISBN ‘ 978-1-84195-454-7.‘
- Gammeltoft, Peder (2010) “Shetland and Orkney Island-Names ” A Dynamic Group”. Northern Lights, Northern Words.
Selected Papers from the FRLSU Conference, Kirkwall 2009, edited by Robert McColl Millar.
Washington / w ‘ t n/ is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States located north of Oregon, west of Idaho, and south of the Canadian province of British Columbia on the coast of the Pacific Ocean. Named after George Washington, the first President of the United States, the state was made out of the western part of the Washington Territory which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty as a settlement of the Oregon Boundary Dispute.
It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889.
Washington is the 18th most extensive and the 13th most populous state. Approximately 60 percent of Washington’s residents live in the Seattle metropolitan area, the center of transportation, business, and industry along the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea, an inlet of the Pacific consisting of numerous islands, deep fjords, and bays carved out by glaciers. The remainder of the state consists of deep temperate rainforests in the west, mountain ranges in the west, central, northeast and far southeast, and a semi-arid basin region in the east, central, and south, given over to intensive agriculture.
After California, Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States.
Washington is a leading lumber producer. Its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, hemlock, ponderosa and white pine, spruce, larch, and cedar. The state is the biggest producer of apples, hops, pears, red raspberries, spearmint oil, and sweet cherries, and ranks high in the production of apricots, asparagus, dry edible peas, grapes, lentils, peppermint oil, and potatoes.
Livestock and livestock products make important contributions to total farm revenue and the commercial fishing catch of salmon, halibut, and bottomfish makes a significant contribution to the state’s economy.
Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles, shipbuilding and other transportation equipment, lumber, food processing, metals and metal products, chemicals, and machinery. Washington has over 1,000 dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, power, flood control, and water storage.
Although its official name is “The State of Washington,” the state is often referred to as “Washington state” to distinguish it from Washington, D.C. Another nickname is “the Evergreen State.” Its largest two cities are Seattle, situated in the west, followed by Spokane, located in the east.
Its capital is Olympia.
The Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States. The area was originally part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. Ironically, the area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, which contains the city of Washington.
Washington is the only U.S.
state named after a president. To distinguish it from the U.S. capital, which is also named for George Washington, Washington is often referred to as Washington State, or in more formal contexts as “The State of Washington”.
Washingtonians (residents of Washington) and other residents of the Pacific Northwest normally refer to the state simply as “Washington”, while instead referring to the nation’s capital as “Washington, D.C.” or simply “D.C.”
Washington is the north-western most state of the contiguous United States. Its northern border lies mostly along the 49th parallel, and then via marine boundaries through the Strait of Georgia, Haro Strait and Strait of Juan de Fuca, with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part and the 46th parallel forming the eastern part of the southern boundary.
To the east, Washington borders Idaho, bounded mostly by the meridian running north from the confluence of the Snake River and Clearwater River (about 116 ‘ 57’ west), except for the southernmost section where the border follows the Snake River.
To the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. Washington was a Union territory during the American Civil War, although it never actually participated in the war.
Washington is part of a region known as the Pacific Northwest, a term which always includes Washington and Oregon and may or may not include Idaho, western Montana, northern California, and Alaska, depending on the user’s intent.
The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state. From the Cascades westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains. From the north to the south these volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams.
Mount St. Helens is currently the only Washington volcano that is actively erupting; however, all of them are considered active volcanoes. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles (80 ‘ km) south of the city of Seattle, from which it is prominently visible.
The 14,411-foot-tall (4,392 ‘ m) Mt. Rainier is considered the most dangerous volcano in the Cascade Range, due to its proximity to the Seattle metropolitan area, and most dangerous in the continental U.S. according to the Decade Volcanoes list.
It is also covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states.
Western Washington also is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula, which supports dense forests of conifers and areas of temperate rainforest. These deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States.
In contrast, Eastern Washington, east of the Cascades, has a relatively dry climate with large areas of semiarid steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades; the Hanford reservation receives an average annual precipitation of 6 to 7 inches (150 to 180 ‘ mm). Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, increasing as one goes east to 21.2 inches (540 ‘ mm) in Pullman.
The Okanogan Highlands and the rugged Kettle River Range and Selkirk Mountains cover much of the northeastern quadrant of the state. The Palouse southeast region of Washington was grassland that has been mostly converted into farmland, and extends to the Blue Mountains.
Washington’s climate varies greatly from west to east. An oceanic climate (also called “west coast marine climate”) predominates in western Washington, and a much drier semi-arid climate prevails east of the Cascade Range.
Major factors determining Washington’s climate include the large semi-permanent high pressure and low pressure systems of the north Pacific Ocean, the continental air masses of North America, and the Olympic and Cascade mountains. In the spring and summer, a high pressure anticyclone system dominates the north Pacific Ocean, causing air to spiral out in a clockwise fashion. For Washington this means prevailing winds from the northwest bringing relatively cool air and a predictably dry season.
In the autumn and winter, a low pressure cyclone system takes over in the north Pacific Ocean, with air spiraling inward in a counter-clockwise fashion.
This causes Washington’s prevailing winds to come from the southwest, bringing relatively warm and moist air masses and a predictably wet season. The term “Pineapple Express” is used colloquially to describe the extreme form of this wet season pattern.
Despite western Washington having a marine climate similar to those of many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the “Big Snow” events of 1880, 1881, 1893 and 1916 and the “deep freeze” winters of 1883 “84, 1915 “16, 1949 “50 and 1955 “56, among others. During these events western Washington experienced up to 6 feet (1.8 ‘ m) of snow, sub-zero ( ’18 ‘ ‘ C) temperatures, three months with snow on the ground, and lakes and rivers frozen over for weeks.
Seattle’s lowest officially recorded temperature is 0 ‘ ‘ F ( ’18 ‘ ‘ C) set on January 31, 1950, but low-altitude areas approximately three hours away from Seattle have recorded lows as cold as ’48 ‘ ‘ F ( ’44 ‘ ‘ C).
Weather during the cold season is greatly influenced by the Southern Oscillation. During the El Ni o phase, the jet stream enters the U.S. further south through California, therefore late fall and winter are drier than normal with less snowpack.
The La Ni a phase reinforces the jet stream through the Pacific Northwest, causing Washington to have even more rain and snow than average.
In 2006, the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington’s Economy, a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.
Rain shadow effects
Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. The western side of the Olympic Peninsula receives as much as 160 inches (4,100 ‘ mm) of precipitation annually, making it the wettest area of the 48 conterminous states and a temperate rainforest. Weeks or even months may pass without a clear day.
The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall (in some places more than 200 inches or 5,100 millimetres water equivalent) in the country. In the rain shadow area east of the Cascades, the annual precipitation is only 6 inches (150 ‘ mm). Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains.
The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causing orographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels.
This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures. While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations. (Mount Baker, near the state’s northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world: in 1999, it set the world record for snowfall in a single season: 1,140 inches (95 ‘ ft; 29 ‘ m).)
East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects.
Semi-arid conditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau “especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland. Thus instead of rain forests much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe.
The average annual temperature ranges from 51 ‘ ‘ F (11 ‘ ‘ C) on the Pacific coast to 40 ‘ ‘ F (4 ‘ ‘ C) in the northeast. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was ’48 ‘ ‘ F ( ’44 ‘ ‘ C) in Winthrop and Mazama.
The highest recorded temperature in the state was 118 ‘ ‘ F (48 ‘ ‘ C) at Ice Harbor Dam. Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover and long-lasting drizzles in the winter, and warm, temperate summers.
The Eastern region occasionally experiences extreme climate. Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon. In the Western region, temperatures have reached as high as 112 ‘ ‘ F (44 ‘ ‘ C) in Marietta.
and as low as ’20 ‘ ‘ F ( ’29 ‘ ‘ C) in Longview.
Flora and fauna
Forests cover 52% of the state’s land area, mostly west of the North Cascades. Approximately two-thirds of Washington’s forested area is publicly owned, including 64% of federal land. Other common trees and plants in the region are camassia, Douglas fir, hemlock, penstemon, ponderosa pine, western red cedar, and many species of ferns.
The state’s various areas of wilderness offer sanctuary, with substantially large populations of shorebirds and marine mammals. The Pacific shore surrounding the San Juan Islands are heavily inhabited with killer, gray and humpback whales.
Mammals native to the state include the bat, black bear, bobcat, cougar, coyote, deer, elk, gray wolf, moose, mountain beaver, muskrat, opossum, pocket gopher, raccoon, river otter, skunk, and tree squirrel. Because of the wide range of geography, the State of Washington is home to several different ecoregions which allow for a varied range of bird species.
This range includes raptors, shorebirds, woodland birds, grassland birds, ducks, and others. There have also been a large number of species introduced to Washington, dating back to the early 1700s, including horses and burros. The channel catfish, lamprey, and sturgeon are among the 400 ‘ known freshwater fishes.
Along with the Cascades frog, there are several forms of snakes that define the most prominent reptiles and amphibians. Coastal bays and islands are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of shellfish and whales. There are five species of salmon that ascend the Western Washington area, from streams to spawn.
Washington has a variety of National Park Service units.
Among these are the Alta Lake State Park, San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuge, as well as three national parks, the Olympic National Park, North Cascades National Park and Mount Rainier National Park. The three national parks were established between 1899 and 1968. Almost 95% (876,517 acres, 354,714 hectares, 3,547.14 square kilometers) of Olympic National Park’s area has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Additionally, there are 143 state parks and 9 national forests, run by the Washington State Park System and the United States Forest Service. The Okanogan National Forest is the largest national forest located on the West Coast, encompassing 1,499,023 acres (606,633 ‘ ha). It is managed together as the Okanogan “Wenatchee National Forest, encompassing a considerablely larger area of around 3,239,404 acres (1,310,940 ‘ ha).
The skeletal remains of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete human remains ever found in North America, were discovered in Washington.
Prior to the arrival of explorers from Europe, the region had many established tribes of Native Americans, notable for their totem poles and their ornately carved canoes and masks. Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among the Makah, whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries.
The smallpox epidemic of the 1770s devastated the Native American population.
The first recorded European landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in 1775, on board the Santiago, part of a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora. He claimed all the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound for Spain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas, which they maintained made the Pacific a “Spanish lake” and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire.
In 1778, British explorer Captain James Cook sighted Cape Flattery, at the entrance to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but Cook did not realize the strait existed. It was not discovered until Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle, sighted it in 1787.
The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in 1790 and Francisco de Eliza in 1791, and British explorer George Vancouver in 1792.
The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of 1790 ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notably Britain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States. American captain Robert Gray (for whom Grays Harbor County is named) then discovered the mouth of the Columbia River. He named the river after his ship, the Columbia.
Beginning in 1792, Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, 1805.
Explorer David Thompson, on his voyage down the Columbia River camped at the junction with the Snake River on July 9, 1811, and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site.
Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as “joint occupancy” of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of the Anglo-American Convention of 1818, which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, were deferred until a later time.
Spain, in 1819, ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession.
Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States. Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U.S. lasted for several decades.
With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country, Hudson’s Bay Company, which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District.
Fur trapper James Sinclair, on orders from Sir George Simpson, Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, led some 200 settlers from the Red River Colony west in 1841 to settle on Hudson Bay Company farms near Fort Vancouver. The party crossed the Rockies into the Columbia Valley, near present-day Radium Hot Springs, British Columbia, then traveled south-west down the Kootenai River and Columbia River. Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, 1846.
In 1836, a group of missionaries including Marcus Whitman established several missions and Whitman’s own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County, in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce Indian tribes.
Whitman’s settlement would in 1843 help the Oregon Trail, the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in following decades. Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients ” lacking immunity to new, ‘European’ diseases ” died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, they held ‘medicine man’ Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in 1847. This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians.
Fort Nisqually, a farm and trading post of the Hudson’s Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in 1833.
Black pioneer George Washington Bush and his caucasian wife, Isabella James Bush, from Missouri and Tennessee, respectively, led four white families into the territory and founded New Market, now Tumwater, in 1846. They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon’s discriminatory settlement laws. After them, many more settlers, migrating overland along the Oregon trail, wandered north to settle in the Puget Sound area.
The growing populace of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River formally requested a new territory, which was granted by the U.S.
government in 1853. The boundary of Washington Territory initially extended farther east than the present state’s, including what is now the Idaho Panhandle and parts of western Montana, and picked up more land to the southeast that was left behind when Oregon was admitted as a state. The creation of Idaho Territory in 1863 established the final eastern border.
A Washington State constitution was drafted and ratified in 1878, but it was never officially adopted. Although never approved by Congress, the 1878 constitution is an important historical document which shows the political thinking of the time. It was used extensively during the drafting of Washington State’s 1889 constitution, the one and only official Constitution of the State of Washington.
Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.
Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber. In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry-farming techniques became particularly productive. Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas-fir.
Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining.
For a long period, Tacoma was noted for its large smelters where gold, silver, copper and lead ores were treated. Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time it possessed a large shipbuilding industry. The region around eastern Puget Sound developed heavy industry during the period including World War I and World War II, and the Boeing company became an established icon in the area.
During the Great Depression, a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity.
This culminated in 1941 with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam, the largest concrete structure in the United States.
During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries. While the Boeing Company produced many of the nation’s heavy bombers, ports in Seattle, Bremerton, Vancouver, and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships. Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of whom were quartered at Golden Gardens Park.
In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in 1943 and played a major role in the construction of the nation’s atomic bombs.
Mount St. Helens eruption, 1980
On May 18, 1980, following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face of Mount St. Helens erupted violently, destroying a large part of the top of the volcano.
The eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington eastward and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Washington was 7,061,530 on July 1, 2014, a 5.01% increase since the 2010 United States Census.
According to the United States Census, in 2010, Washington had an estimated population of 6,724,540, which was an increase of 830,419 or 14.1 percent from the year 2000. This includes a natural increase of 380,400 people, and an increase from net migration of 450,019 people into the state. Washington ranks first in the Pacific Northwest region in terms of population, followed by Oregon, and Idaho.
In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Washington’s population as 90% non-Hispanic white.
In 2011, 44.3% of Washington’s population younger than age 1 were minorities.
The center of population of Washington in 2000 was located in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County, southeast of North Bend, northeast of Enumclaw and west of Snoqualmie Pass.
At the 2010 U.S. census, the Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue Metropolitan Area’s population was 3,439,809, approximately half the state’s total population.
6.7 percent of Washington’s population was reported as under five years of age, 25.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 11.2 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 50.2 percent of the population.
The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:
- 20.7% German
- 12.6% Irish
- 12.3% English
- 8.2% Hispanic
- 6.2% Norwegian
- 3.9% French
- 3.9% American
- 3.8% Swedish
- 3.6% Italian
- 3.3% Scottish
- 2.5% Scotch Irish
- 2.5% Dutch
- 1.9% Polish
- 1.8-2.0% Russian
According to the 2010 United States census, the racial and ethnic composition of Washington was the following:
- White: 77.3% (Non-Hispanic Whites 71%, White Hispanics 6.3%)
- Black or African American: 3.6%
- Native Americans: 1.5%
- Asian: 7.2%
- Pacific Islander: 0.4% (0.2% Samoan, 0.1% Guamanian, 0.1% Hawaiian)
- Two or more races: 4.7%
- Other races 5.1%
There is a sizable population with Hispanic or Latino heritage at 11.2%.
The Hispanic/Latino population can belong to any of the racial groups and consists of people of mainly Mexican (8.9%), Spanish (0.4%), Cuban (0.4%), Salvadoran (0.2%), Guatemalan (0.1%), Colombian (0.1%) heritage.
According to 2010 United States Census estimates, 77% of Washingtonians are white or European American, although this is ambiguous as it includes not only caucasians including those who are born in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the former USSR, but people born in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (the number of Arab American nationalities risen dramatically in the 1990s and 2000s).
Areas of concentration
While the population of African Americans in the Pacific Northwest is scarce overall, they mostly concentrate in South End and Central District areas of Seattle, and in inner Tacoma. The black community of Seattle developed after World War II when wartime industries and the U.S. Armed Forces employed and recruited tens of thousands of African Americans from the Southeastern United States.
They left a high influence in west coast rock music and R&B and soul in the 1960s, including Seattle native Jimi Hendrix, a pioneer in hard rock, who was of African American and Cherokee Indian descent.
American Indians lived on Indian reservations or jurisdictory lands such as the Colville Indian Reservation, Makah, Muckleshoot Indian Reservation, Quinault (tribe), Salish people, Spokane Indian Reservation and Yakama Indian Reservation. The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook, Lummi and Salish. But Urban Indian communities formed by the U.S.
Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation programs in Seattle since the end of World War II brought a variety of Native American cultures to this diverse metropolis. The city was actually named for Chief Seattle when European Americans settled the isthmus in the 1880s.
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are mostly concentrated in the Seattle ‘Tacoma metropolitan area. Seattle, Bellevue, and Redmond, which are all located within King County, have sizable Chinese communities (including Taiwanese), as well as significant Indian and Japanese communities that are present there.
The Chinatown-International District in Seattle has a historical Chinese population dating back to the 1850s, who mainly emigrated from Guangdong province in southern China, and is currently home to a diverse East and Southeast Asian community. Koreans are heavily concentrated in the suburban cities of Federal Way and Auburn to the south and in Lynnwood to the north. Tacoma is home to thousands of Cambodians, and has one of the largest Cambodian American communities in the United States, along with Long Beach, California and Lowell, Massachusetts.
The Vietnamese and Filipino populations of Washington are mostly concentrated within the Seattle metropolitan area. Washington state has the second highest percentage of Pacific Islander people in the mainland U.S. (behind Utah); the Seattle-Tacoma area is home to over 15,000 people of Samoan ancestry, who mainly reside in southeast Seattle, Tacoma, Federal Way, and in SeaTac.
The most numerous (ethnic, not racial, group) are Latinos at 11%, as Mexican Americans formed a large ethnic group in the Chehalis Valley, farming areas of Yakima Valley and Eastern Washington. In the late 20th century, large-scale Mexican immigration and other Latinos settled in the southern suburbs of Seattle with limited concentrations in King, Pierce and Snohomish Counties during the region’s real estate construction booms in the 1980s and 1990s.
Additionally, Washington has a large Ethiopian community, with many Eritrean residents as well.
Over 30,000 Somali immigrants also reside in the Seattle area.
The largest cities in Washington according to 2014 state estimates.
In 2010, 82.51% (5,060,313) of Washington residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.79% (477,566) spoke Spanish, 1.19% (72,552) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 0.94% (57,895) Vietnamese, 0.84% (51,301) Tagalog, 0.83% (50,757) Korean, 0.80% (49,282) Russian, and German was spoken as a main language by 0.55% (33,744) of the population over the age of five. In total, 17.49% (1,073,002) of Washington’s population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.
Major religious affiliations of the people of Washington are:
- Protestant: 49%
- Evangelical: 25%
- Protestant Mainline: 23%
- Other Protestant: 1%
- Unaffiliated: 23%
- Catholic: 16%
- Mormon: 2%
- Jewish: 1%
- Muslim: .5%
- Other religions 3%
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 784,332; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) with 267,267; and the Assemblies of God with 125,005.
Aquarian Tabernacle Church is the largest Wiccan church in the country.
As with many other Western states, the percentage of Washington’s population identifying themselves as “non-religious” is higher than the national average. The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is the highest of any state other than Colorado.
The 2015 total gross state product for Washington was $425.017 billion, placing it 14th in the nation.
The per capita GDP in 2009 was $52,403, 10th in the nation. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft (Boeing), automotive (Paccar), computer software development (Microsoft, Bungie, Amazon.com, Nintendo of America, Valve Corporation, ArenaNet), telecom (T-Mobile USA), electronics, biotechnology, aluminum production, lumber and wood products (Weyerhaeuser), mining, beverages (Starbucks, Jones Soda), real estate (John L. Scott), retail (Nordstrom, Eddie Bauer, Car Toys, Costco, R.E.I.), and tourism (Alaska Airlines, Expedia, Inc.).
The state has significant amounts of hydroelectric power generation.
Significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound. (See list of United States companies by state.) A Fortune magazine survey of the top 20 Most Admired Companies in the US has four Washington-based companies in it: Amazon.com, Starbucks, Microsoft, and Costco.
With the passage of Initiative 1183, the Washington State Liquor Control Board (WSLCB) ended its monopoly of all state liquor store and liquor distribution operations on June 1, 2012.
Among its resident billionaires, Washington boasts Bill Gates, technology advisor and former Chairman & CEO of Microsoft, who, with a net worth of $84.1 billion, is the wealthiest man in the world as of 2013. Other Washington state billionaires include Paul Allen (Microsoft), Steve Ballmer (Microsoft), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), Craig McCaw (McCaw Cellular Communications), James Jannard (Oakley), Howard Schultz (Starbucks), and Charles Simonyi (Microsoft).
As of January 2015, the state’s unemployment rate is 6.3 percent.
The state of Washington is one of only seven states that does not levy a personal income tax. The state also does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax.
However, Washington businesses are responsible for various other state levies, including the business and occupation tax (B & O), a gross receipts tax which charges varying rates for different types of businesses.
Washington’s state base sales tax is 6.5 percent which is combined with a local rate. As of April 2014, the rate is 9.5 percent in Seattle and other cities. These taxes apply to services as well as products.
Most foods are exempt from sales tax; however, prepared foods, dietary supplements and soft drinks remain taxable. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 8 and 9 percent.
An excise tax applies to certain select products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages. Property tax was the first tax levied in the state of Washington and its collection accounts for about 30 percent of Washington’s total state and local revenue.
It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools, fire protection, libraries, parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts.
All real property and personal property is subject to tax unless specifically exempted by law. Personal property also is taxed, although most personal property owned by individuals is exempt. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business or to other personal property not exempt by law.
All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer’s office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts, stocks or bonds. Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state.
Washington does not collect inheritance taxes; however, the estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore the state imposes its own estate tax.
Washington’s tax policy differs significantly from neighboring Oregon’s, which levies no sales tax but a very high income tax. This leads to border economic anomalies in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. Additional border economies exist with neighboring Canada and Idaho.
Washington is a leading agricultural state. (The following figures are from the Washington State Department of Agriculture and the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Washington Field Office.) For 2013, the total value of Washington’s agricultural products was $10.2 billion.
In 2013, Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries (92.7 percent of total U.S. production), hops (79.2 percent), spearmint oil (72.9 percent), wrinkled seed peas (60 percent), apples (57 percent), sweet cherries (50.9 percent), pears (49.5 percent), Concord grapes (36.5 percent), carrots for processing (36.5 percent), green peas for processing (34.4 percent), and peppermint oil (31.4 percent).
Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of fall potatoes (a quarter of the nation’s production), nectarines, apricots, grapes (all varieties taken together), sweet corn for processing (a quarter of the nation’s production), and summer onions (a fifth of the nation’s production).
The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.S.
in apple production since the 1920s. Two areas account for the vast majority of the state’s apple crop: the Wenatchee “Okanogan region (comprising Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas, and Grant counties), and the Yakima region (comprising Yakima, Benton and Kittitas counties).
Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California. By 2006, the state had over 31,000 acres (130 ‘ km2) of vineyards, a harvest of 120,000 short tons (109,000 ‘ t) of grapes, and exports going to over 40 countries around the world from the 600 wineries located in the state.
While there are some viticultural activities in the cooler, wetter western half of the state, the majority (99%) of wine grape production takes place in the desert-like eastern half. The rain shadow of the Cascade Range leaves the Columbia River Basin with around 8 inches (200 ‘ mm) of annual rain fall, making irrigation and water rights of paramount interest to the Washington wine industry. Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours (on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season) and consistent temperatures.
As of December 2014, there are 124 broadband providers that offer service to Washington state with 93% of consumers having access to broadband speeds of 25/3mpbs or more.
Additionally, there are 406,000 people who live in Washington who live in an area served by only 1 broadband provider leaving them without a competitive market.
From 2009-2014 the Washington State Broadband Project was awarded $7.3M in federal grants but program was discontinued in 2014. For infrastructure another $166M was award to broadband infrastructure projects in Washington state since 2011.
Washington has a system of state highways, called State Routes, as well as an extensive ferry system which is the largest in the nation and the third largest in the world. There are 140 public airfields in Washington, including 16 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation.
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Sea-Tac) is the major commercial airport of greater Seattle. Boeing Field in Seattle is one of the busiest primary non-hub airports in the US. The unique geography of Washington creates exceptional transportation challenges.
There are extensive waterways in the midst of Washington’s largest cites, including Seattle, Bellevue, Tacoma and Olympia.
The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area. Washington’s marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to 147,000 sailings each year. Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, Lacey V.
Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Hadley Memorial Bridge over Lake Washington, and the Hood Canal Bridge which connects the Olympic Peninsula and Kitsap Peninsula.
The Cascade Mountain Range also provides unique transportation challenges. Washington operates and maintains roads over seven major mountain passes and eight minor passes.
During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all are able to stay open through the winter. The North Cascades Highway, State Route 20, closes every year.
This is because the extraordinary amount of snowfall and frequency of avalanches in the area of Washington Pass make it unsafe in the winter months. Cayuse & Chinook Passes east of Mount Rainier also close in winter.
Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads, and Amtrak’s passenger Cascade route between Eugene, OR and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the USA and one of the few profitable routes in the system. Public transportation has generally lagged, although the much-delayed link light rail system in the greater Seattle region opened its first line in 2002.
Residents of Vancouver have resisted proposals to extend Portland’s mass transit system into Washington.
In 2007, Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxic brominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used. A 2004 study of 40 mothers from Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Montana found PBDEs in the breast milk of every woman tested.
Three recent studies by the Washington Department of Ecology showed that toxic chemicals banned decades ago continue to linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain. In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish collected from 45 sites.
The toxic substances included PCBs; dioxins, two chlorinated pesticides, DDE and dieldrin, and PBDEs. As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish. Based on the 2007 information and a previous 2004 Ecology study, the Washington State Department of Health is advising the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins the Columbia, due to unhealthy levels of PCBs.
Study results also indicated high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.
On March 27, 2006, Governor Christine Gregoire signed into law the recently approved House Bill 2322. This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0.5 percent over the next six years. Though the ban would be effective statewide in 2010, it would take place in Whatcom County, Spokane County, and Clark County in 2008.
A recent discovery had linked high contents of phosphorus in water to a boom in algae population. An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would eventually lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.
Government and politics
Washington’s executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The current statewide elected officers are:
- Jay Inslee, Governor (D)
- Brad Owen, Lieutenant Governor (D)
- Kim Wyman, Secretary of State (R)
- Bob Ferguson, Attorney General (D)
- Jim McIntire, State Treasurer (D)
- Troy Kelley, State Auditor (D)
- Randy Dorn, Superintendent of Public Instruction (non-partisan office)
- Peter J.
Goldmark, Commissioner of Public Lands (D)
- Mike Kreidler, Insurance Commissioner (D)
The bicameral Washington State Legislature is the state’s legislative branch. The state legislature is composed of a lower House of Representatives and an upper State Senate. The state is divided into 49 legislative districts of equal population, each of which elects two representatives and one senator.
Representatives serve two-year terms, whilst senators serve for four years. There are no term limits. As of the 2013 and 2014 session, the Democratic Party held the majority in the House, while the Republicans had control of the state Senate with a coalition of some Democrats.
In the 2014 midterm elections, the Republican Party took full control of the Senate.
The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine justices serve on the bench and are elected statewide.
The two U.S.
Senators from Washington are Patty Murray (D) and Maria Cantwell (D).
Washington’s ten representatives in the United States House of Representatives (see map of districts) are Suzan DelBene (D-1), Richard Ray (Rick) Larsen (D-2), Jaime Herrera (R-3), Doc Hastings (R-4), Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-5), Derek Kilmer (D-6), Jim McDermott (D-7), Dave Reichert (R-8), Adam Smith (D-9), and Dennis Heck (D-10).
Due to Congressional redistricting as a result of the 2010 Census, Washington gained one seat in the United States House of Representatives. With the extra seat, Washington also gained one electoral vote.
The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal (particularly the I-5 Corridor) and Eastern Washington being conservative. Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since 1988.
Due to Western Washington’s large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide.
The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area, home to almost two-thirds of Washington’s population, generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington. This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle itself and almost a third of the state’s population.
Washington was considered a key swing state in 1968, and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon. Washington was considered a part of the 1994 Republican Revolution, and had the biggest pickup in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington’s nine House seats.
However, this dominance did not last for long as Democrats picked up one seat in the 1996 election and two more in 1998, giving the Democrats a 5 “4 majority.
The two current United States Senators from Washington are Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell, both Democrats. The governorship is currently held by Democrat Jay Inslee, who was elected to his first term in the 2012 gubernatorial election. In 2013 and 2014 both houses of the Washington State Legislature (the Washington Senate and the Washington House of Representatives) were under a Democratic majority, though the state senate was under Republican control, due to two Democrats joining Republicans to form a Majority Coalition Caucus.
After the 2014 elections the Democrats retained control of the House, while Republicans took a majority in the Senate without the need for a coalition.
Washington is one of three states to have legalized assisted suicide. In 2008 voted on by initiative the Washington Death with Dignity Act passed and became law.
In November 2009, Washington state voters approved full domestic partnerships via Referendum 71, marking the first time voters in any state expanded recognition of same-sex relationships at the ballot box.
Three years later, in November 2012, same-sex marriage was affirmed via Referendum 74, making Washington one of only three states to have approved same-sex marriage by popular vote.
Also In November 2012, Washington state became one of just two states to pass by initiative the legal sale and possession of cannabis for both medical and non-medical use with Initiative 502. The law took effect in December 2012.
Although marijuana is still illegal under U.S. Federal law, persons 21 and older in Washington state can possess up to one ounce of marijuana, 16 ounces of marijuana-infused product in solid form, 72 ounces of marijuana-infused product in liquid form, or any combination of all three, and to legally consume marijuana and marijuana-infused products. Some 334 legal recreational marijuana retail outlets are projected to open by June 2014.
Washington state was the first state in the United States where assisted suicide, same-sex marriage, and recreational cannabis use are all legal.
After the 2014 elections, it was joined by Oregon.
Elementary and secondary
As of the 2008 “2009 school year, 1,040,750 students were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in Washington, with 59,562 teachers employed to educate them. As of August 2009, there were 295 school districts in the state, serviced by nine Educational Service Districts. Washington School Information Processing Cooperative (a non-profit, opt-in, State agency) provides information management systems for fiscal & human resources and student data.
Elementary and secondary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Washington State Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), led by State School Superintendent Randy Dorn.
High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of utilizing the state’s Running Start program. Initiated by the state legislature in 1990, the program allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.
The state also has several public arts focused high schools including Tacoma School of the Arts, Vancouver school of Arts and Academics, and The Center School. There are also three Science and Math based high schools one in the Tri-Cities, Washington, known as Delta, one in Tacoma, Washington, known as SAMI, and another in Seattle known as Raisbeck Aviation High School.
There are more than 40 institutions of higher education in Washington.
The state has major research universities, religious schools, and private career colleges. Public universities and colleges include the University of Washington, Washington State University, Western Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Central Washington University, and The Evergreen State College.
Healthcare in Washington
Symbols, honors, and names
Four ships of the United States Navy, including two battleships, have been named USS Washington in honor of the state. Previous ships had held that name in honor of George Washington.
The Evergreen State
The state’s nickname “Evergreen” was proposed in 1890 by Charles T.
Conover of Seattle, Washington. The name proved popular as the forests were full of evergreen trees and the abundance of rain keeps the shrubbery and grasses green throughout the year. Although that nickname is widely used by the state, appearing on vehicle license plates for instance, it has not been officially adopted.
The publicly funded Evergreen State College in Olympia also takes its name from this nickname.
The state song is “Washington, My Home,” the state bird is the American goldfinch, the state fruit is the apple, and the state vegetable is the Walla Walla sweet onion. The state dance, adopted in 1979, is the square dance. The state tree is the western hemlock.
The state flower is the coast rhododendron. The state fish is the steelhead. The state folk song is “Roll On, Columbia, Roll On” by Woody Guthrie.
The unofficial, but popularly accepted, state rock song is Louie Louie. The state grass is bluebunch wheatgrass. The state insect is the green darner dragonfly.
The state gem is petrified wood. The state fossil is the Columbian mammoth. The state marine mammal is the orca.
The state land mammal is the Olympic marmot. The state seal (featured in the state flag as well) was inspired by the unfinished portrait by Gilbert Stuart.
- American Redoubt
- Index of Washington-related articles
- Outline of Washington ” organized list of topics about Washington
- Evans, Elwood; Meany, Edmond S (1893), The State of Washington: A Brief History of the Discovery, Settlement and Organization of Washington, the “Evergreen State,” as well as a Compilation of Official Statistics Showing the Material Development of the State up to Date, Tacoma, WA: World’s Fair Commission of the State of Washington ‘ .
- Hawthorne, Julian; Brewerton, George Douglas (1893), History of Washington: The Evergreen State, from Early Dawn to Daylight: With Portraits and Biographies 1, New York: American Historical Publishing ‘ | Volume 2.
- Edmond S. Meany, History of the State of Washington, New York: Macmillan, 1909.
- Meany, Edmond S.; Condon, John T. (eds.), Washington’s First Constitution, 1878 and Proceedings of the Convention (PDF) ‘ .
Reprinted from the Washington Historical Quarterly, 1918 “1919.
- State of Washington website
- the official tourism site of the State of Washington
- Washington State Databases ” Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Washington state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
- Secretary of State’s Washington History website
- Constitution of the State of Washington
- Washington Administrative Code (State Administrative Rules)
- State Code Search Tool
- Energy Profile for Washington ” Economic, environmental, and energy data
- USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Washington
- Washington State Facts from USDA
- Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History
- Police Scanner Information for Washington state
- CWU Brooks Library Edward W.
Nolan Photograph Collection The collection contains images of the State of Washington and the American West from the 1880s to the 1930s.
- Washington (state) at DMOZ
- Geographic data related to Washington (state) at OpenStreetMap
Apple rolls out iTunes 12.0.1 to go along with Mac OS X Yosemite
In order to use the new Yosemite operating system for Mac OS X, Apple has now released iTunes 12.0.1 through the Mac App Store and directly through the Apple website.
Get New iTunes 12
The newly updated file is approximately 218MB and features drastically improved design and performance improvement, Apple says these changes make iTunes more enjoyable to use.
Mac System Requirements
- Mac computer with an Intel Core processor
- OS X version 10.7.5 or later
- 400MB of available disk space
- Broadband Internet connection to use the iTunes Store
Windows System Requirements
- PC with a 1GHz Intel or AMD processor and 512MB of RAM
- Windows XP Service Pack 3 or later, 32-bit editions of Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8
- 64-bit editions of Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8 require the iTunes 64-bit installer
- 400MB of available disk space
- Broadband Internet connection to use the iTunes Store